Rise of Liberalism and Welfare State : Political Theory MPS 001

Q. 7

(A) Rise of Liberalism

Liberalism may be a political and ethics supported liberty, consent of the governed and equality before the law. Liberals espouse a good array of views counting on their understanding of those principles, but they typically support free market, trade , limited government, individual rights (including civil rights and human rights), capitalism, democracy, secularism, gender equality, racial equality, internationalism, freedom of speech, freedom of the press and freedom of faith . Yellow is that the political colour most ordinarily related to liberalism.

rise of liberalism, welfare state

Liberalism became a definite movement within the Age of Enlightenment, when it became popular among Western philosophers and economists. Liberalism sought to exchange the norms of hereditary privilege, state religion, absolute monarchy, the divine right of kings and traditional conservatism with representative democracy and therefore the rule of law. Liberals also ended mercantilist policies, royal monopolies and other barriers to trade, instead promoting trade and free markets. Philosopher Locke is usually credited with founding liberalism as a definite tradition, supported the agreement , arguing that every man features a natural right to life, liberty and property and governments must not violate these rights. While British liberal tradition has emphasized expanding democracy, French liberalism has emphasized rejecting authoritarianism and is linked to nation-building.

(B) Welfare State today

The state may be a sort of government during which the state protects and promotes the economic and social well-being of the citizens, based upon the principles of civil right , equitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for citizens unable to avail themselves of the minimal provisions for an honest life. Sociologist T. H. Marshall described the fashionable state as a particular combination of democracy, welfare, and capitalism.

As a kind of economy , the state funds the governmental institutions for healthcare and education along side direct benefits given to individual citizens. Early features of the state , like public pensions and social welfare , developed from the 1880s onwards in industrializing Western countries. the good Depression, war I and war II are characterized as important events that ushered expansions of the state . the fashionable state emerged during a reactive thanks to the good Depression of the 1930s as a sort of state interventionism to deal with unemployment, lost output, and collapse of the economic system . By the late 1970s, the contemporary capitalist state began to say no , partially thanks to the depression of Post-World War II capitalism and Keynesianism, and partially thanks to the shortage of a well-articulated ideological foundation for the state .

Early conservatives, under the influence of Malthus , opposed every sort of social welfare "root and branch". They argued, consistent with economist Brad DeLong, that it might "make the poor richer, and that they would become more fertile. As a result, farm sizes would drop (as the land was divided among ever more children), labor productivity would fall, and therefore the poor would become even poorer. social welfare wasn't just pointless; it had been counterproductive." Malthus, a priest for whom contraception was anathema, believed that the poor needed to find out the hard thanks to practice frugality, self-control and chastity. Traditional conservatives also protested that the effect of social welfare would be to weaken private charity and loosen traditional social bonds of family, friends, religious and non-governmental welfare organisations.

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