STEPS INVOLVED IN RESEARCH PROCESS: The research process consists of a series of actions or steps necessary to effectively perform research and therefore the desired sequencing of those steps. The research process consists of variety of closely related activities but such activities overlap continuously instead of following a strictly prescribed sequence. One should remember that the varied steps involved during a research process aren't mutually exclusive, nor they're separate and distinct. they are doing not necessarily follow one another in any specific order and therefore the researcher has got to be constantly anticipating at each step within the research process the wants of the next steps. However, the subsequent order concerning various steps involved within the research process:

i. Formulating the Research Problem: There are two sorts of research problems, viz., those which relate to states of nature and people which relate to relationships between variables. the simplest way of understanding the matter is to debate it with one’s own colleagues or with those having some expertise within the matter. In a tutorial institution, the researcher can seek help from a guide who is typically an experienced man and has several research problems in mind. Often, the guide puts forth the matter generally terms and it's up to the researcher to narrow it down and phrase the matter in operational terms. privately business units or in governmental organizations’, the matter is typically earmarked by the executive agencies with whom the researcher can discuss on how the matter originally happened and what considerations are involved in its possible solutions. STEPS INVOLVED IN RESEARCH PROCESS

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ii. Extensive Literature Survey: Once the matter is formulated, a quick summary of it should be written down. it's compulsory for a search worker to write down a thesis for a Ph.D. degree to write down a synopsis of the subject and submit it to the required Committee or the Research Board for approval. At this stage, the researcher should undertake an in depth literature survey connected with the matter . For this purpose, the abstracting and indexing journals and published or unpublished bibliographies are the primary place to travel . Academic journals, conference proceedings, government reports, books, etc., must be tapped counting on the character of the matter . during this process, it should be remembered that one source will cause another. an honest library are going to be an excellent help to the researcher at this stage. STEPS INVOLVED IN RESEARCH PROCESS

iii. Development of Working Hypotheses: Working hypothesis may be a tentative statement made so as to prolong and test its logical or empirical consequences. intrinsically the way during which research hypotheses are developed is especially important since they supply the focus for research. They also affect the way during which tests must be conducted within the analysis of knowledge and indirectly the standard of knowledge that's required for the analysis. the event of the working hypothesis plays a crucial role in maximum research. Hypothesis should be very specific and limited to the piece of research in hand because it's to be tested. The role of the hypothesis is to guide the researcher by delimiting the world of research and to stay him on the proper track. It sharpens his thinking and focuses attention on the more important facets of the matter . It also indicates the sort of knowledge required and therefore the sort of methods of knowledge analysis to be used. STEPS INVOLVED IN RESEARCH PROCESS

iv. Preparing the Research Design: The research problem having been formulated in clear cut terms, the researcher are going to be required to organize a search design. The preparation of the research design, appropriate for a specific research problem, involves usually the consideration of the following:

  • the means of obtaining the information;
  • the availability and skills of the researcher and his staff (if any);
  • explanation of the way during which selected means of obtaining information are going to be organized and therefore the reasoning resulting in the selection;
  • the time available for research; and
  • the cost factor concerning research, i.e., the finance available for the aim .

v. Determining Sample Design: The researcher must decide the way of choosing a sample of what's popularly referred to as the sample design. In other words, a sample design may be a definite plan determined before any data are literally collected for obtaining a sample from a given population.

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vi. Collecting the Data: collecting the acceptable data which differs considerably within the context of cash costs, time, and other resources at the disposal of the researcher. Primary data are often collected either through experiments or through a survey. If the researcher conducts an experiment, he observes some quantitative measurements, or the info , with the assistance of which he examines the reality contained in his hypothesis. It includes – observation, personal interview, telephone interviews, mailing of questionnaires, schedules, etc. The researcher should select one among these methods of collecting the info taking into consideration the character of the investigation, objective and scope of the inquiry, financial resources, available time, and therefore the desired degree of accuracy. STEPS INVOLVED IN RESEARCH PROCESS

vii. Execution of the Project: The researcher should see that the project is executed during a systematic manner and in time. If the survey is to be conducted by means of structured questionnaires, data are often readily machine-processed. The survey is under statistical control in order that the collected information is in accordance with the pre-defined standard of accuracy. If a number of the respondents don't cooperate, some suitable methods should be designed to tackle this problem.

viii. Analysis of data: After the info are collected, the researcher turns to the task of analyzing them. The analysis of knowledge requires variety of closely related operations like the establishment of categories, the appliance of those categories to data through coding, tabulation, then drawing statistical inferences to use computers. Computers not only save time but also make it possible to review an outsized number of variables affecting a drag simultaneously. The researcher can analyze the collected data with the assistance of varied statistical measures.

ix. Hypothesis-testing: The hypotheses could also be tested through the utilization of 1 or more of such tests, depending upon the character and object of the research inquiry. Hypothesis-testing will end in either accepting the hypothesis or in rejecting it.

x. Generalizations and Interpretation: If a hypothesis is tested and upheld several times, it's going to be possible for the researcher to reach generalization, the important value of research lies in its ability to reach certain generalizations. If the researcher had no hypothesis to start out with, he might seek to elucidate his findings on the idea of some theory. it's referred to as interpretation. the method of interpretation may very often trigger new questions which successively may cause further researches.

xi. Preparation of the Report: Finally, the researcher has got to prepare the report of what has been done by him. Writing of report must be through with care keeping in sight the following:

The layout of the report should be as follows:

(i) Preliminary pages the report should carry title and date followed by acknowledgments and foreword. Then there should be a table of contents followed by an inventory of tables and list of graphs and charts, if any, given within the report.

(ii) the most text of the report should have the subsequent parts:

(a) Introduction: It should contain a transparent statement of the target of the research and an evidence of the methodology adopted in accomplishing the research. The scope of the study along side various limitations should also be stated during this part.

(b) Summary of findings: After the introduction, there would seem a press release of findings and proposals in non-technical language. If the findings are extensive, they ought to be summarized.

(c) Main report: the most body of the report should be presented during a logical sequence and broken-down into readily identifiable sections.

(d) Conclusion: Towards the top of the most text, the researcher should again put down the results of his research clearly and precisely. In fact, it's the ultimate summation .

(iii) At the top of the report, appendices should be enlisted in respect of all technical data. Bibliography, i.e., list of books, journals, reports, etc., consulted, should even be given within the end. Index should even be given specially during a published research report.

Report should be written during a concise and objective style in simple language avoiding vague expressions like ‘it seems,’ ‘there may be’, and therefore the like.

Charts and illustrations within the main report should be used as long as they present the knowledge more clearly and forcibly.

Calculated ‘confidence limits’ must be mentioned and therefore the various constraints experienced in conducting research operations may also be stated.

It is apparent that the research process includes several steps which help to finish a search monograph or thesis paper during a convenient way. So, we should always follow the steps involved within the research process once we are getting to do a search project. STEPS INVOLVED IN RESEARCH PROCESS

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