MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22


MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22



Course Code: MPC 001

Assignment Code: MPC 001/ASST/TMA/2021-22

Marks: 100

NOTE: All questions are compulsory.



Answer the following questions in 1000 words each.

3 x 15 = 45 marks

1. Define cognitive psychology and describe the domains of cognitive psychology.

Cognitive psychology is that the scientific investigation of human cognition, that is, all our mental abilities – perceiving, learning, remembering, thinking, reasoning, and understanding. The term “cognition” stems from the Latin word “ cognoscere” or “to know”. Fundamentally, psychology studies how people acquire and apply knowledge or information. it’s closely associated with the highly interdisciplinary science and influenced by AI , computing , philosophy, anthropology, linguistics, biology, physics, and neuroscience.


Cognitive psychology in its modern form incorporates an interesting set of latest technologies in psychology . Although published inquiries of human cognition are often traced back to Aristotle’s ‘’De Memoria’’ (Hothersall, 1984), the intellectual origins of psychology began with cognitive approaches to psychological problems at the top of the 1800s and early 1900s within the works of Wundt, Cattell, and James (Boring, 1950).

Cognitive psychology declined within the half of the 20th century with the increase of “behaviorism” –- the study of laws relating observable behavior to objective, observable stimulus conditions with none recourse to internal mental processes (Watson, 1913; Boring, 1950; Skinner, 1950). it had been this last requirement, fundamental to psychology , that was one among behaviorism’s undoings. for instance , lack of understanding of the interior mental processes led to no distinction between memory and performance and did not account for complex learning (Tinklepaugh, 1928; Chomsky, 1959). These issue led to the decline of behaviorism because the dominant branch of scientific psychology and to the “Cognitive Revolution”.

The Cognitive Revolution began within the mid-1950s when researchers in several fields began to develop theories of mind supported complex representations and computational procedures (Miller, 1956; Broadbent, 1958; Chomsky, 1959; Newell, Shaw, & Simon, 1958). MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 psychology became predominant within the 1960s (Tulving, 1962; Sperling, 1960). Its resurgence is probably best marked by the publication of Ulric Neisser’s book, ‘’Cognitive Psychology’’, in 1967. Since 1970, quite sixty universities in North America and Europe have established psychology programs.


Very much like physics, experiments and simulations/modelling are the main research tools in psychology . Often, the predictions of the models are directly compared to human behaviour. With the convenience of access and wide use of brain imaging techniques, psychology has seen increasing influence of neuroscience over the past decade. There are currently three main approaches in psychology : experimental cognitive psychology, computational psychology , and neural psychology .
Experimental psychology treats psychology together of the natural sciences and applies experimental methods to research human cognition. Psychophysical responses, reaction time, and eye tracking are often measured in experimental psychology. MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Computational psychology develops formal mathematical and computational models of human cognition supported symbolic and subsymbolic representations, and dynamical systems. Neural psychology uses brain imaging and neurobiological methods to know the neural basis of human cognition. The three approaches are often inter-linked and supply both independent and complementary insights in every sub-domain of psychology.

Sub-domains of psychology

Traditionally, psychology includes human perception, attention, learning, memory, concept formation, reasoning, judgment and decision-making, problem solving, and language processing. For some, social and cultural factors, emotion, consciousness, animal cognition, evolutionary approaches have also become a part of psychology.

2. Critically discuss Sternberg’s Information processing approach.

Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. As such, it is a process that describes everything that happens (changes) in the universe, from the falling of a rock (a change in position) to the printing of a text file from a digital computer system. In the latter case, an information processor (the printer) is changing the form of presentation of that text file (from bytes to glyphs).The computers up to this period function on the basis of programmes saved in the memory, they have no intelligence of their own.

Sternberg's theory of intelligence is made up of three different components: creative, analytical, and practical abilities (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). Creativeness is the ability to have new original ideas, and being analytical can help a person decide whether the idea is a good one or not. "Practical abilities are used to implement the ideas and persuade others of their value" (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012 p. 21). MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 In the middle of Sternberg's theory is cognition and with that is information processing. In Sternberg's theory, he says that information processing is made up of three different parts, metacomponents, performance components, and knowledge-acquisition components (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). These processes move from higher-order executive functions to lower-order functions. Metacomponents are used for planning and evaluating problems, while performance components follow the orders of the metacomponents, and the knowledge-acquisition component learns how to solve the problems (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). This theory in action can be explained by working on an art project. First is a decision about what to draw, then a plan and a sketch. MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 During this process there is simultaneous monitoring of the process, and whether it is producing the desired accomplishment. All these steps fall under the metacomponent processing, and the performance component is the art. The knowledge-acquisition portion is the learning or improving drawing skills.

Information processing theories of intelligence offer a potentially rich yet generally unexplored theoretical forum for conceptualizing and investigating learning disabilities. The purpose of this article is to advance our understanding of the nature of specific learning disabilities by using Sternberg's (1985) triarchic theory of human intelligence as a framework for expanding the componential-deficit approach. Specifically, deficient cognitive strategies and inadequate knowledge in certain domains may result from learning disabled individuals' inability to (a) selectively encode, compare, and combine information, or (b) automatize information processing. In addition, this article emphasizes the importance of the experiential, contextual, and motivational history of the learning disabled individual in understanding his or her componential deficits.

Robert Sternberg is an American psychologist and professor who is best known for his theory on intelligence and creativity. Learn about Sternberg's views on intelligence, information processing, the basic mental processes, and more.

In cognitive psychology, information processing is an approach to the goal of understanding human thinking. Information processing may more specifically be defined in terms used by Claude E. Shannon as the conversion of latent information into manifest information (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2011). Latent and manifest information is defined through the terms of equivocation (remaining uncertainty, what value the sender has actually chosen), dissipation (uncertainty of the sender what the receiver has actually received), and transformation (saved effort of questioning - equivocation minus dissipation) (Denning and Bell, 2012).

Within the field of cognitive psychology, information processing is an approach to the goal of understanding human thinking in relation to how they process the same kind of information as computers (Shannon & Weaver, 1963). It arose in the 1940s and 1950s, after World War II (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 The essence of the approach is to see cognition as being in essence computational in nature, with mind being the software and the brain being the hardware. The information processing approach in psychology is closely allied to the Computational theory of mind in philosophy; it is also related, though not identical, to cognitivism in psychology and functionalism in philosophy (Horst, 2011).

Information processing can be sequential or parallel, which can both be either centralized or decentralized (distributed). The parallel distributed processing in mid-1980s became popular under the name connectionism. In early 1950s Friedrich Hayek was ahead of his time when he posited the idea of spontaneous order in the brain arising out of decentralized networks of simple units (neurons). IGNOU MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 However, Hayek is rarely cited in the literature of connectionism. The connectionist network is made up different nodes, and it works by a "priming effect," and this happens when a "prime node activates a connected node" (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). But "unlike in semantic networks, it is not a single node that has a specific meaning, but rather the knowledge is represented in a combination of differently activated nodes"(Goldstein, as cited in Sternberg, 2012).

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Intelligence is one of the most complex, talked about concepts within the field of psychology. In the past century, several theories about what constitutes intelligence have been created. Robert Sternberg, an American psychologist, created one of the most wellknown theories of intelligence. IGNOU MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Unlike most theories of intelligence, Sternberg's theory calls for the integration of intelligence and creativity.

According to Robert Sternberg's theory, there are three basic mental processes that underlie all intelligent behavior. The three basic mental processes are:

Although what is viewed as intelligent in one culture might not be viewed as intelligent in another, the basic mental processes are the same across different cultures.

Metacomponents are the executive processes that we use to solve problems, plan what to do, make decisions, and evaluate outcomes. Performance components carry out the directions of the metacomponents. MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 It is performance components that allow us to store information in short-term memory, compare two concepts, compare solutions to the task, etc. Knowledge-acquisition components are what we use to learn and store new information. In other words, metacomponents tell us what to do, performance components actually do it, and knowledge-acquisition components make sure we learn things along the way.

For example, you may plan to read a book - that involves metacomponents. When you grab a book off the shelf and actually read it, that involves performance components. If you learn new vocabulary words while reading, that involves knowledge-acquisition components.

3. Explain the concept of IQ. Describe the history of measurement of intelligence.

IQ, short for intelligence quotient, is a measure of a person’s reasoning ability. In short, it is supposed to gauge how well someone can use information and logic to answer questions or make predictions. IQ tests begin to assess this by measuring short- and longterm memory. They also measure how well people can solve puzzles and recall information they’ve heard — and how quickly.

Every student can learn, no matter how intelligent. But some students struggle in school because of a weakness in one specific area of intelligence. These students often benefit from special education programs. There, they get extra help in the areas where they’re struggling. IQ tests can help teachers figure out which students would benefit from such extra help.

IQ tests also can help identify students who would do well in fast-paced “gifted education” programs. Many colleges and universities also use exams similar to IQ tests to select students. And the U.S. government — including its military — uses IQ tests when choosing who to hire. These tests help predict which people would make good leaders, or be better at certain specific skills.

It’s tempting to read a lot into someone’s IQ score. Most non-experts think intelligence is the reason successful people do so well. Psychologists who study intelligence find this is only partly true. MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 IQ tests can predict how well people will do in particular situations, such as thinking abstractly in science, engineering or art. Or leading teams of people. But there’s more to the story. Extraordinary achievement depends on many things. And those extra categories include ambition, persistence, opportunity, the ability to think clearly — even luck.

According to Huitt (2003), there are a few basic principles that most cognitive psychologists agree with:

The mental system has limited capacities, i.e. bottlenecks in the flow and processing of information, occur at very specific points

A control mechanism is required to oversee the encoding, transformation, processing, storage, retrieval and utilization of information. This control mechanism requires itself processing power and that varies in function of the difficulty of the task.

There is a two-way flow of information. Sensory input is combined with information stored in memory in order to construct meaning.

The human organism has been genetically prepared to process and organize information in specific ways.

The first modern intelligence test in IQ history was developed in 1904, by Alfred Binet (1857-1911) and Theodore Simon (1873-1961). MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 The French Ministry of Education asked these researchers to develop a test that would allow for distinguishing mentally retarded children from normally intelligent, but lazy children. The result was the Simon-Binet IQ test. This IQ test consists of several components such as logical reasoning, finding rhyming words and naming objects.

The score for the IQ test in combination with a child's age, provides information on the intellectual development of the child: is the child ahead of or lagging other children? The IQ was calculated as (mental age/chronological age) X 100. The test came to be a huge success, both in Europe and America.

The key assumption behind evolutionary epistemology is that animals are active learners or ‘knowers’. In the present study, I updated the concept of natural learning, developed by Henry Plotkin and John Odling-Smee, by expanding it from the animal-only territory to the biosphere-as-a-whole territory. In the new interpretation of natural learning the concept of biological information, guided by Peter Corning’s concept of “control information”, becomes the ‘glue’ holding the organism–environment interactions together. The control information guides biological systems, from bacteria to ecosystems, in the process of natural learning executed by the universal algorithm. This algorithm, summarized by the acronym IGPT (information-gain-process-translate) incorporates natural cognitive methods including sensing/perception, memory, communication, and decision-making. Finally, the biosphere becomes the distributed network of communicative interactions between biological systems termed the interactome. MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 The concept of interactome is based on Gregory Bateson’s natural epistemology known as the “ecology of mind”. Mimicking Bateson’s approach, the interactome may also be designated “physiology of mind”—the principle behind regulating the biosphere homeostasis.

The universal capacity of organisms, from bacteria to animals, to actively sense their local environments and adjust to them intelligently, reflects the universal capacity to learn (Plotkin 1982; Bradie 1986; Gontier 2006; Watson et al. 2015; Watson and Szathmáry 2016; Bradie and Harms 2017). In the evolutionary sense, all organisms are active learners or ‘knowers’. The processes behind natural learning are at the heart of evolutionary epistemology. According to the branch of evolutionary epistemology known as EEM (evolutionary epistemology mechanisms): (1) organisms are knowledge systems, (2) evolution is the process of knowledge acquisition and (3) there are features shared by all forms of the evolutionary knowledge acquisition (Plotkin 1982).

Learning enables organisms to intelligently adjust to local environments and calls for further learning and further adjustments—organisms are engaged in an endless process of natural epistemology or biological intelligence (Slijepcevic 2018). Furthermore, the process of learning is not one sided. MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 As organisms learn about their local environments and adjust to them, local environments become their learning partners (Lewontin 1978; Okasha 2005). Local environments, represented by diverse groups of organisms, learn about adjusting actions of their organismal partners and intelligently adjust to their partners’ adjustments. This is the biosphere-wide cybernetic process that includes all species and all organisms (Bateson 1979). In this process, organisms of the same species communicate with each other through natural languages (Ben-Jacob 1998; Ben-Jacob et al. 2004) and different forms of semiosis (i.e. habits, codes), as they are at work in ecological systems and explored by contemporary biosemiotics (Kull et al. 2008). On the other hand, organisms from different species communicate through the process of crosskingdom communication based on biosemiotics (McFall-Ngai et al. 2013; Jarosz et al. 2014).

Given that the nature of communicative interactions is cybernetic or informational, biological information becomes an essential ingredient in the process of natural learning. The role of information in natural learning featured prominently in writings of EEM proponents (e.g. Plotkin 1982; Plotkin and Odling-Smee 1982). However, very little can be found in the EEM literature about the actual concept of biological information and how this concept integrates into the process of natural learning.

The aim of the present paper is to integrate the original EEM’s understanding of natural learning by Plotkin (1982) and Plotkin and Odling-Smee (1982) with cybernetic, information theory and systems theory views, using bacteria as a model system. I start by presenting the EEM’s take on the concept of information and the role of information in natural learning (Sect. 2). I then outline the concept of biological information that combines information theory and its more recent derivatives appropriate for biological systems, in particular, “control information” of Corning (2007) (Sect. 3) and information processing by bacteria (Ben-Jacob 1998, 2009; Ben-Jacob et al. 2004) (Sect. 4). In the final part of the paper (Sect. 5), I present a synthetic outlook of information processing and natural learning in biological systems.

This chapter discusses measuring of intelligence by Francis Galton, J. McK. Cattell, and Alfred Binet. Charles Spearman abhorred the program that would separate the mind into a loose confederation of independent faculties of learning, memory and attention. Although most intelligence researchers today probably accept that the general factor is to stay, they remain sharply divided on its explanation. MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 These disagreements go well beyond a rejection of Spearman's specific suggestions that g is either mental energy or the eduction of relations and correlates. Spearman saw that he needed to provide a psychological or (better still) a neurobiological explanation of g. The two favorite paradigms for this program of research were inspection time (IT) and choice reaction time (RT). Aided by the new technologies of brain imaging, research on intelligence, working memory, and other so-called executive functions has begun to point to some of the brain structures common to them all.


Answer the following questions in 400 words each.

5 x 5 = 25 marks

4. Describe the principles of information processing.

5. Explain the cellular bases of learning and memory.

6. Discuss Spearman’s Two-factor theory of intelligence.

7. Define creativity. Discuss the measurement of creativity.

8. Explain the basic concepts of multilingualism.


Answer the following questions in 50 words each.

10 x 3 = 30 marks

9. Nature vs. Nurture

10.Neuroscience and cognitive psychology

11.Miller’s magic number

12.Encoding, Storage and Retrieval

13.Knowledge base in PASS theory

14.Spatial intelligence


16.Problem space

17.Functional fixedness

18.Backward search

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