Discuss any two approaches to the study International Relations.

1. Discuss any two approaches to the study International Relations.


International relations theory is that the study of diplomacy (IR) from a theoretical perspective. It attempts to supply a conceptual framework upon which diplomacy are often analyzed. Ole Holsti describes diplomacy theories as acting like pairs of colored sunglasses that allow the wearer to ascertain only salient events relevant to the theory; e.g., an adherent of realism may completely disregard an occasion that a constructivist might pounce upon as crucial, and the other way around . The three most prominent theories are realism, liberalism and constructivism.Sometimes, institutionalism proposed and developed by Keohane and Nye is discussed as a paradigm differed from liberalism.
International relations theories are often divided into "positivist/rationalist" theories which specialise in a principally state-level analysis, and "post-positivist/reflectivist" ones which incorporate expanded meanings of security, starting from class, to gender, to postcolonial security. Many often conflicting ways of thinking exist in IR theory, including constructivism, institutionalism, Marxism, neo-Gramscianism, et al. . However, two positivist schools of thought are most prevalent: realism and liberalism.


Neo-realism came to be developed within the diplomacy of 1980s, and under the influence of the ideas and writings of Keneth Waltz. Like Realism, Neo-Realism also accepts and advocates the central importance of power in diplomacy . However at same time, it also accepts the necessity to elucidate these in terms of the structure of diplomacy .
It advocates that states, while remaining continuously involved in struggle for power, are influenced, not only by the weather of national power and national interest but also by the international structure. for instance , the demise of the Eurocentric international hierarchy acted as a component of the foreign policies of the USA & USSR within the post-war diplomacy .
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Neo-Realism gives primacy to power in diplomacy but at an equivalent time accepts the role of other factors particularly the structure of Systeme International d'Unites , international cooperation and even the economic factors of relations among nations.
Neo-Realism, which is additionally sometimes described as Structural Realism or Contemporary Realism, stands related to the names of several contemporary scholars, particularly Keneth Waltz, whose work “Theory of International Relations” (1979) became known for its neo-realist approach.
However, Keneth Waltz preferred to use the term Structural Realism. He strongly advocated the view that the structure of Systeme International d'Unites decisively shaped the behaviour of countries within the international struggle for power.

Liberal Approach in International Politics

Liberal approach to the study of diplomacy has its roots within the development of liberal political orientation that happened within the 17th Century. The liberal tradition always takes a positive view of attribute . It had its origin and large popularity in political orientation and it entered the realm of diplomacy only within the last half of the 20th century.
Liberals put the individual at the centre of the universe. All progress is measured in terms of the interests of the individuals within the universe. Locke , for instance , is credited with the creation of a constitutional state through a agreement to guard the natural rights of the individual. Such a state enables and establishes the rule of law that respects the rights of the citizens, particularly the rights to life, liberty and property.
This doesn't mean that states are relegated to marginal status within the liberal perspective. faraway from it, the fashionable liberals view states because the most vital collective actors of our times . They are, however, seen as pluralistic actors whose interests and policies are determined by bargaining among groups and elections.

Liberals are of the view that the interests of the states aren't static but dynamic. Interests of states keep it up changing with time because individual’s values and power relations among interest groups keep it up evolving over time. Also, most liberals believe that states don't only have certain self- interests to preserve but also regard state’s policies as other- regarding to some extent since they believe that the expansion of liberal democracy increases people’s concern for other humans.